Introducing Thoughts and Ideas of Ketamansiswaan in the Global Realm
Seloso Kliwon Workshop, is the embryo of the emergence of advanced thoughts and ideas about various aspects of nationality towards independence. The nine figures include Seloso kliwon namely, Ki Ageng Suryomentaram, Ki Hadjar Dewantara, Ki Sutopo Wonoboyo, Ki Pronowidigdo, Ki Prawirowiworo, BRM Subono (Ki Gede Suryomentaram’s younger brother), Ki Suryodirjo, Ki Sutatmo, and Ki Suryoputro. In the tuesday Kliwon workshop, it was finally agreed to create a moral movement to provide a foundation and instill a national spirit in the youth through national education.
The movement gave birth to two big ideas, namely tamansiswa and Kawruh Jiwa. Ki Ageng Suryamentaram with the idea of kawruh jiwa was given the mandate to educate parents (non-formal). Ki Hajar Dewantara founded Tamansiswa which has a focus on children’s education (formal). The goal is to educate indigenous people to have knowledge and mental independence.
It needs to be underlined, the ideas of the nine figures in seloso kliwon, namely Tamansiswa and Kawruh Jiwa, always base their views on their cultural wisdom by harmonizing the views of western figures. The idea of student gardening moves with the concoction of harmony between nationalism, tradition, and modernity.
However, the concept of Ketamasansiswaan has not been fully implemented and even tends to be abandoned. Western knowledge today fills almost the entire curriculum of higher education in this country. And that knowledge system then developed throughout the world, including in Indonesia, through scholars who studied and gained knowledge there. The scholars then “copy-pasted” thoughts and knowledge from the West to be taught and tried out in the social context and behavior in Indonesia. So that as we have seen so far, almost all of the educational materials in our universities are Western products. In other words, we in Indonesia in particular, and third-world countries in general, are only consumers of Western scientific products.
The question is, what is the history and spirit of the emergence of student gardening so that it can become an independence movement? Do these student-student ideas have the potential to emerge in a global environment? Then how is the current student movement progressing, can it compete with educational models from the West?
Through the Tamansiswa School of Thought, it is hoped that it will promote the idea of student affairs side by side amid competition with ideas from the West. Tamansiswa School of Thought will bring back the revolutionary spirit of the nine Seloso Kliwon figures who fought against the colonial hegemony of western knowledge. By regenerating modern ideas but having roots in their own culture.
Indigenous Psychology Roadmap: Collaboration to Formulate Theories from Nusantara Psychological Concepts
Starting of a lot of research with the Indigenous Psychology approach as now days, the challenge is how to collaborate on existing findings in order to create the principle of universality that Indigenous Psychology aspires to based on local culture. Do not let the existing findings just be scattered and without a container that binds them into a framework for Indonesian psiological theory. Therefore, it is important to have a collaboration between researchers of indigenous Indonesian psychology or a plan for long-term research until finally the fragmentary findings can be unified into a formal psychological theory.
In addition to prospects for the development of the theoretical side, the Indigenous Psychology approach also provides fresh air for the development of the methodological side, especially in the development of measurement tools. This certainly cannot be separated from the development of theoretical concepts that are more contextual with Indonesian culture. With measuring tools that are more appropriate to the cultural context, it is hoped that what we want to measure is far more valid if we use measuring instruments that come from the west.
However, it also needs to be considered on the other hand. First, psychological theories and literature are still very weird (Norenzayan, Heinrich, & Heine, 2010). Apart from that, the indigenous approach has an orientation that is too local and prone to ethnocentrism (Jahoda, 2017)
Homework for Indigenous psychology researchers in bringing Indigenous Psychology towards global psychology is collaboration. This collaboration includes creating a conducive and well-programmed academic situation. In addition, it is necessary to continue to encourage publication on an international scale, both through journals and conferences. Assuming that Indonesia is rich in cultural potential, Indonesia has the potential to contribute significantly to the development of global psychology in the future and to avoid ethnocentrism.